Obesity and Diabetes
Diabetes is spreading worldwide as an epidemic. Diabetes is a disorder in which the body cells fail to take up glucose from the blood. Wasting of tissues is seen as glucose-starved cells are forced to consume their own proteins. Diabetes is the cause for blindness, kidney failure and amputation in adults. Individuals with diabetes lack the ability to use the hormone insulin .
As we start eating food, our body starts producing insulin. The insulin signal attaches to a special receptor on the cell surface, to make the cell turn-on its own glucose transporting machinery. It had been observed that type 2 diabetics have normal or even elevated levels of insulin in their body with normal insulin receptor but, due to some unknown reason, the binding of insulin to the cell receptors does not starts the glucose transporting machinery, which it is supposed to do. Special proteins called IRS ( insulin receptor substrate) are inside the cell. In type 2 diabetes something is interfering with the action of the IRS protein and it is also estimated that about 80% of those who develop type 2 diabetes are obese. When insulin attaches to the receptor protein, the receptor responds by adding a chemical called a phosphate group onto the IRS molecules due to which the IRS molecules turn into action. Once activated, they start variety of processes, including an enzyme that turns on the glucose transporter machinery.
Overweight and obesity are both labels for series of weight, greater than what is generally considered healthy for an individual. BMI ranges for children and teens above a normal weight have different labels (at risk of overweight and overweight). Excess body weight is implicated as a risk factor for many disorders including heart disease, cancer, diabetes, female infertility, prostate enlargement, uterine fibroids, gallstone and gestational diabetes etc. The location of fat deposits in the body leads to different risks associated with it. Increased abdominal fat can be estimated by waist size.
Dozens of controlled clinical trials were carried out to determine the effect of weight loss on fasting blood glucose. They found:
- Weight loss produced by lifestyle modification declines blood glucose levels and HbA1c in type 2 diabetics.
- Glucose tolerance can be improved in overweight individuals by decreasing abdominal fat.
- Glucose tolerance can also be improved in overweight individuals with increased cardio respiratory fitness.