Diabetic Ketoacidosis is a condition in which the body cells are unable to get glucose for producing energy. It is a state of absolute or relative insulin deficiency aggravated by hyperglycemia, dehydration, and acidosis-producing derangements in intermediary metabolism. Due to insufficiency of insulin, the cells cannot use glucose. To avoid starvation the body begins to break down fat, for energy. The constant break down of fat, releases fatty acids and ketone bodies causing chemical imbalance (metabolic imbalance) called Diabetic Ketoacidosis.
Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA) and its Pathophysiology
In the absence of insulin, an anabolic hormone, the cells of muscle, liver and other body parts are unable to take up glucose. Counter regulatory hormones, such as glucagon, growth hormone, and catecholamine; boosts triglyceride breakdown into free fatty acids and gluconeogenesis. Beta-oxidation of these free fatty acids leads to production of ketone bodies. Metabolism in DKA shifts from carbohydrate metabolism to fat breakdown. Diabetic Ketoacidosis include a metabolic acidosis as the ketone bodies, produced by beta-oxidation of free fatty acids to deplete extra cellular and cellular acid buffers. The hyperglycemia-induced osmotic diuresis depletes sodium, potassium, phosphates, and water (i.e.10% of total body fluids). Moderate or large amounts of ketones in your urine are dangerous. They upset the chemical balance of the blood.
Following are the reasons for moderate or large amounts of ketones in the body:
- Insufficiency of insulin (inborn error)
- Due to improper injection
- Body does not produce insulin (flu or any infection)
- Body needs more insulin
- No enough food or skipping of meals
- When blood glucose levels fall too low