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Diabetes >> Diabetes Dictionary
Listed below are general diabetes-related terminologies and their meanings. Click on the alphabet to view the list of terms starting with that letter.
  • IDDM (insulin dependent diabetes mellitus): is a term that was earlier used to describe type1 diabetes. 

  • Immune System: the system that the body adapts to fights against bacteria and viruses and protecting itself from foreign elements. The higher the immunity, the less likely it is for the person to fall ill. 

  • Immunosuppressant: a drug given to suppress the natural immunity system of the body. It is most often given to patients who have undergone organ transplant so as to prevent it from rejecting the organ. 

  • Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG): a condition wherein the person shows high levels of blood glucose during fasting but not high enough to categorize as diabetic. This person is a likely candidate to develop type2 diabetes. 

  • Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT):  a condition wherein the person shows high levels of blood glucose two hours after starting an Oral Glucose Tolerance Test. This person is a likely candidate to develop type2 diabetes. 

  • Implantable Insulin Pump: a pump that is kept inside the body so as to release insulin as and when the user desires with the help of a programmer, a small device held by the user.  

  • Impotence: the inability or failure to get an erection for the course of sexual activity. It is also known as erectile dysfunction. A prolonged period of diabetes may also lead to impotence.      

  • Incidence: it is a gauge how frequently a disease tends to occur. It checks the new cases of a particular disease that has been reported among a certain section of people in a stipulated time period.    

  • Incontinence: loss of control over the bladder or the bowel. It results in the accidental loss of urine or even feces.

  • Inhaled Insulin: is a device in the experimental stage wherein this portable device lets the patient inhale (breath in) the insulin. This would provide a lot of convenience to people, especially during travel.

  • Injection: inserting nutrients or medication in liquid form to patients with the help of a syringe. A diabetic patient usually uses injection for supplying insulin to the body. Injections can be intravenous or intramuscular.

  • Injection Site Rotation: is to change the location on the body where the insulin has to be administered. This practice helps in the prevention of forming of minute lumps known as lipodystrophies.

  • Injection Sites: the various places of the body where patients can inject insulin.  

  • Insulin: a hormone that enables the body to use sugar for its energy requirements. The insulin produced in the body is made by the beta cells which are in the islet of the pancreas.

  • Insulin Adjustment: a modification made on the intake of insulin a diabetic person takes on the basis of the diet flowed by the person, the blood glucose level and the exercise regime.

  • Insulin Allergy: a condition where the person can react negatively to the injected insulin. There are two kinds of allergies; local and systematic. Allergies can include itching, red patches and even changes in heart rate.   

  • Insulin Analogues: is a specially made type of insulin where certain alterations have been made to the original composition of the insulin so as to benefit the patients a little more than ordinary insulin.

  • Insulin Antagonist: a substance which is opposed to the actions taken by insulin. Glucagon is a substance that increases the blood glucose level whereas insulin lowers it, so glucagon can be classified as an insulin antagonist

  • Insulinoma: a tumor that forms in the beta cells, the cells that are responsible for producing insulin. This condition may set off an increase in the insulin produced and can lead to hyperglycemia.  

  • Insulin Pen: is a device that is similar to a pen that is used to inject insulin. It is available in disposable form or also ones with replaceable cartridges.     

  • Insulin Pump: a device which would pump insulin into the body in a set pattern at regular intervals as programmed by the user. It is small device with a needle inserted under the skin.  

  • Insulin Reaction: is a condition where the sugar level falls well below the normal level. It is a case of hypoglycemia. Taking small amounts of sugar or sweetened juice would get rid of the problem.

  • Insulin Receptors: the exterior portion of the cell which permits the cell to join with the insulin after which the cell is in a position to take glucose to use as energy. 

  • Insulin Resistance: the failure of the body to react and utilize the insulin that is produced within the body. This may be due to various reasons such as hypertension, obesity or excess fat. 

  • Insulin Shock: the condition where there is an abrupt drop in the blood glucose level. It is an emergency situation. It can also happen when insulin reaction is not attended to immediately.

  • Intensive Therapy: a treatment method for diabetes patients in which the aim is to keep the blood glucose level as normal as possible through insulin injections, balanced diet and regular exercise.

  • Intermediate-Acting Insulin: a kind of insulin that drops the blood glucose level within 1-2 hours of administering the dose and works the strongest between 6-12 hours of the injection. This could vary with type used.

  • Intermittent Claudication: the pain that is experienced off and on mainly during exercise in the legs. This condition develops when the blood vessels narrow and the legs do not receive sufficient blood supply.

  • Intramuscular Injection: inserting medication or nutrients into the muscle with the help of a syringe and a needle. 

  • Intravenous Injection: inserting medication or nutrients into the veins with the help of a syringe and a needle.

  • Islet Cell Autoantibodies: the proteins that are seen in the blood of newly diagnosed type1 diabetes patients or those who are likely to develop. It indicates that the beta cells are being damaged by the immune system.   

  • Islet Transplantation: transferring the islets from the donor pancreas into the pancreas of the patient who has stopped producing insulin. The beta cells found in the islet is the one hat produces insulin.  

  • Islets: a cluster of cells found in the pancreas which make the hormones that are responsible for breaking down food and using it. It is also known as Islets of Langerhans.   

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