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Diabetes >> Diabetes Dictionary
Listed below are general diabetes-related terminologies and their meanings. Click on the alphabet to view the list of terms starting with that letter.
  • C-peptide: is a material that the pancreas release which is equal in quantity to the insulin produced. A test to measure the C-peptide level will indicate the quantum of insulin produced.

  • Callus: is a small part or region of skin which tends to become hard and thick over a period due to prolonged pressure or rubbing. This is usually seen on the foot.

  • Calorie: a single measure of energy that food provides is known as calorie.  Calorie count varies with every food, for e.g. protein and carbohydrates have 4 calories per gm whereas fat has 9. 

  • Capillary: is the smallest of all the blood vessels. It takes the vital glucose and oxygen to the cells and the discarded carbon dioxide passes through the capillary to be released from the body.

  • Capsaicin: is an ingredient made out of hot peppers and is used in an ointment that is used to relieve pain that arises due to  peripheral or diabetic neuropathy.

  • Carbohydrate: is one of the three vital categories that food is classified into. Everyday foods that are rich in carbohydrate content include starches, sugar, vegetables, dairy products and fruits. 

  • Carbohydrate Counting: is a process used to count the carbohydrate intake on a regular basis. This is especially important for diabetic patients to monitor plan their meals and provide a balanced diet.

  • Cardiologist: is a doctor who has specialized in treating patients with heart ailments. The cardiologist looks after and treats people who are suffering from various types of heart diseases.

  • Cardiovascular Disease: is a disease which affects the heart and the blood vessels like the arteries, veins and the capillaries.

  • Cardiometabolic risk factors: a set of certain conditions preexist which determine if a person is a likely candidate to suffer from diabetes or any other heart disease. These conditions are set to be the cardiometabolic risk factors.

  • Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: is a disorder that affects the nerves of the patient suffering from diabetes. This nerve disorder usually affects the hands of the patient. This condition is caused due to a pinched nerve.

  • Cataract: is a condition affecting the eyes. The lenses of the eyes get cloudy. When a diabetic patient suffers from this condition it is at times referred to as sugar cataract.

  • Cerebrovascular Disease: is a condition that arises when the blood vessels in the brain are damaged. The blood vessels tend to get blocked due to fat deposits and this can inadvertently lead to a stroke.

  • Certified Diabetes Educator (CDE): is a health care specialist who is proficient in diabetes care and has successfully met all the eligibility criteria required for the same by qualifying all the necessary examinations. 

  • Charcot’s Foot: a condition wherein the soft tissues and the joints of the foot get damaged. This occurs due to nerve damage.  It is at times referred to as Neuropathy Arthropathy or even Charcot’s joint.

  • Cheroarthropathy: please refer limited joint mobility

  • Cheiropathy: please refer limited joint mobility

  • Chlorpropamide: an oral drug that is used to treat type2 diabetes. It decreases the blood glucose level and enables the pancreas to make more insulin and helps the body in better utilizing this insulin. 

  • Cholesterol: is a kind of fat that is made by the liver and is visible in the blood. It is essential to produce hormones and also make cell walls. Certain foods also have cholesterol.

  • Chronic: is a term used to explain the true meaning of something that has been present for a prolonged period. It can be said to be contrary to the word acute. 

  • Circulation: is a term used to refer to the free flow of blood to all parts of the body through the blood vessels and the heart.  

  • Clinical Trial: is a study done scientifically and is tried and tested on people. This is done under absolute controlled conditions. The test is essential to prove the effectiveness of drugs under trial. 

  • Coma: a sleep like condition where the person is not conscious. This can happen in diabetics in case of hypoglycemia (low blood sugar level) or even due to hyperglycemia (high blood sugar level).  

  • Combination Oral Medicines: it is an oral drug which is a combination of two or more drugs to treat a medical condition.  

  • Combination Therapy: is a treatment method used to treat patients suffering from type2 diabetes wherein a combination of different medicines are used together to get a hold on the blood glucose level. 

  • Complications of diabetes: diabetes can have adverse effects on the other body parts such as heart, nerves, eyes, blood vessels. Blood pressure, blood glucose and the cholesterol levels under control help in preventing or delaying these troubles.

  •   Congenital Defects: are defects that are seen in a person at the time of birth itself.

  • Congestive Heart Failure:  is a condition where the heart loses its power to pump. This results in accumulation of fluid in various parts of the body particularly in the lungs and the feet.

  • Conventional Therapy: a name given to a treatment method wherein the diabetic patient receives medication so as to keep the blood glucose level under control. This method does not involve medication alone. Besides medication there is regular monitoring of blood glucose level, consumption of balanced meal, regular exercise and customary visit to the health center. 

  • Coronary Artery Disease: please refer Coronary Heart Disease

  • Coronary Heart Disease: a heart condition wherein the arteries tend to become thick or blocked due to fat deposits preventing the blood to flow freely reducing the blood supply to the heart, causing heart disease.

  • Coxsackie B4 Virus: is a cause that seems to destruct the beta cells that are present in the pancreas. These results have been proved in lab tests and could be a possible reason for insulin dependent diabetes.     

  • Creatinine: a chemical in the body that is discarded by the kidney. It is produced by the protein consumed and also from the muscles. An increase in creatinine level is an indication of a kidney disease.     

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