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Diabetes >> Diabetes Dictionary
Listed below are general diabetes-related terminologies and their meanings. Click on the alphabet to view the list of terms starting with that letter.
  • Background Retinopathy: is said to be the initial phase of diabetic retinopathy. It is also known as nonproliferative retinopathy or even simple retinopathy. The condition is actually a kind of damage to the retina which includes bleeding along with fluid accumulation and also an abnormal dilation of the blood vessels is seen. 

  • Basal Rate: is the uniform and continuous drip of insulin which is of very low level but at the same time acts for a longer duration. The same mechanism that is used in insulin pumps.

  • Beta Cells: the hormone responsible for the making and releasing of insulin in the body which controls the blood glucose level. These cells are positioned in the region known as islet in the pancreas.

  • Biguanide: is a kind of oral drug that is used to deal with type2 diabetes. It lowers the level of the blood glucose in the body which is done by decreasing the amount of glucose that is generated by the liver and enabling the body to react well to the insulin.

  • Biphasic Insulin: a kind of insulin which is a combination of both intermediate insulin and that of fast acting kind of insulin.

  • Blood Glucose: is the sugar that is made by the body by the 3 most important elements fat, protein and carbohydrate. The chief ingredient being carbohydrate. Glucose is the most vital source of energy for cells.

  • Blood Glucose Level: it is the level of glucose that is found in a given quantity of blood. The blood glucose level is indicated by milligrams per deciliter which is denoted as mg/dL.

  • Blood Glucose Meter: is a portable machine which is used to check one’s blood glucose level. First the skin is pricked with the help of a lancet and a drop of blood is placed on the test strip which is available along with the machine. Very soon the result appears on the digital display.   

  • Blood Glucose Monitoring: is done to keep a check on the blood glucose level which helps in controlling diabetes. A blood glucose meter displays the result when a drop of blood is placed on the testing strip. 

  • Blood Pressure: is the force or pressure of the blood on the interior walls of the blood vessels. The blood pressure is denoted in ratio form, the first number being the systolic pressure which is the pressure when the heart pushes out blood to the arteries and the second figure is diastolic pressure, which is arrived upon when the heart rests.  

  • Blood Sugar: please refer blood glucose

  • Blood Sugar Level: please refer blood glucose level

  • Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN): is the waste that remains after the breaking down of protein. The kidney functions as a filter to eliminate the urea and when kidney function slows down the BUN increases.   

  • Blood Vessels: are the pipes that carry blood along with nutrients to all the parts of the body. There are three main blood vessels which are the veins, arteries and the capillaries.   

  • Body Mass Index (BMI): is the measure that is used to determine the persons weight in accordance to his/her height. This helps in determining if the person is of normal weight, underweight or overweight.  

  • Bolus: is the additional dose of insulin that is taken to prevent complications arising from a likely rise in the blood glucose level. This usually happens soon after a meal or even a snack.  

  • Borderline diabetes: is a former term that was used to describe what is now known as type2 diabetes. It was also used to describe impaired glucose tolerance. The term is no longer in use.

  • Brittle Diabetes: is a word assigned to describe a condition where the patient’s blood glucose level shifts rapidly to extreme level i.e. from high to low and again from low to high.

  • Bronze Diabetes: is a genetic disorder in a person where the liver functions abnormally and the body tends to retains excess amount of iron from the food. The condition is also called hemocromatosis.   

  • Bunion: is a projection or a bulge that is seen on the primary joint of one’s big toe. This happens due to an inflammation of a fluid sac which is just beneath the skin.

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