Causes of Hypoglycemia
Hypoglycemia results due to different factors in every individual but, certain abnormal conditions are repeatedly seen in hypoglycemic patients due to oral hypoglycemic drug or medication, insulin, alcohol, hormonal deficiency, critical illness, trauma etc.
Oral hypoglycemic drug/ Medication: In people taking certain glucose medication Orinase, Tolinase, Diabinese and others drugs like salicylate, sulpha drug, pantamidine, quinine.
In the diabetics experiencing hypoglycemia, it has been observed that there is lowing condition when:
- Meals or snacks are too small, delayed, or skipped
- Excessive doses of insulin or some diabetes medications, including sulfonylureas and meglitinides (Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, biguanides, and thiazolidinediones when used with other diabetes medicines.)
- increased activity or exercise
- Drinking alcohol
Insulin: When the insulin shot and the food intake do not match there is much possibility that there may be an episode of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia. Dosage is not the only important factor but, adjusting time according to meal intake on regular basis is also a crucial feature.
Alcohol: Binge intake of alcohol, can cause hypoglycemia because your body's breakdown of alcohol interferes with your liver's efficiency to raise blood glucose. Alcohol intake also affects the pancreas production of insulin, ultimately increasing more chances of hypoglycemia, in the future.
Hormonal Deficiencies: New born baby and children are more suspected for hypoglycemia due to some inborn error or developmental defects. Shortages of cortisol, growth hormone, glucagon, or epinephrine, lack of pituitary or adrenal hormones can lead to fasting hypoglycemia. Laboratory tests for hormone levels will determine a diagnosis and then treatment can be undertaken. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) might be advised.
Critical Illnesses: Critical illnesses, even for a moderate period affect the liver, heart, or kidneys and develop a case of hypoglycemia. Sepsis and starvation are other causes of hypoglycemia.
Diet: Hypoglycemia is a result of hearty diet full of simple carbohydrates. It is also termed as reactive hypoglycemia. It may also develop, if a person with diabetes misses a snack, doesn't eat the whole meal, eats later than usual, doesn't eat when ill, or drinks alcohol without eating any food. Intense exercise may also trigger a hypoglycemic reaction.
Medical Conditions: There are medical conditions that can also lead to low blood glucose levels, even the person who does not have diabetes may also develop hypoglycemia in certain conditions like, thyroid problems, certain other hormonal deficiencies or after having stomach surgery. Hypoglycemia can occur in people with certain tumors that produce insulin, liver disease or adrenal failure or if you have certain conditions like kidney problems.